Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day! – Past Tense Imperfetto

Burano in Venice, Italy and Everyday Italian phrases
Kathryn for learntravelitalian.com
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Learn Travel Italian.com

Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2020? Let’s continue to learn about the Italian past tense to work toward this resolution!

As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.

If we learn how to incorporate “commonly used phrases”  in the past tense into our conversations, we will be able to talk about our daily lives just as we do in our native language! For instance, if we want to make general statements about what has happened in the past in Italian, we will need to master the imperfetto past tense. The conjugation of the imperfetto past tense is fairly straightforward.  The tricky part is knowing how to use this verb form.

This post is the 32nd in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group.  If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE

Many “commonly used phrases” in Italian

use the past tense

imperfetto

See below for how this works.

As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?

Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.

The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar  

                       found on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com.

The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.

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Imperfetto Italian Past Tense

If we want to make general statements about what has happened in the past in Italian, we will need to master the imperfetto past tense. The conjugation of the imperfetto past tense is fairly straightforward.  The tricky part is knowing how to use this verb form.

The Italian imperfetto past tense refers to the recent past, and is useful when describing events that happened frequently in the past without a specific time frame.  The imperfetto in Italian translates into the simple past tense in English and also into “used to” or “was/were…ing.”  Let’s learn how to form this tense, which is actually quite easy, as the same endings are added to the stems for the –are, -ere, and ire verbs.

To change any infinitive verb into the imperfetto past tense, first drop the -re from the   -are, -ere, or -ire endingThis will give stems that will have the last letters as: a, e, and i.  Then, just add the following endings to the stems for all three conjugations: vo, vi, va, vamo, vate, vano. 

Let’s see how this works by conjugating some familiar verbs in the table below.  The stressed syllables have been underlined for easy pronunciation. Notice how the stress falls on the syllable just prior to the ending we add for the io, tu, Lei/lei/lui and loro forms.  For the noi and voi forms, the stress instead falls on the first syllable of the ending that is added.

Imperfetto Conjugation

  Abitare

(lived)
(used to live)
(was/were living)

Vedere

(saw)
(used to see)
(was/were seeing)

Dormire

(slept)
(used to sleep)
(was/were sleeping)

io abitavo vedevo dormivo
tu abitavi vedevi dormivi
Lei/lei/lui abitava vedeva dormiva
       
noi abitavamo vedevamo dormivamo
voi abitavate vedevate dormivate
loro abitavano vedevano dormivano

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Below is an excerpt from a conversation between two women, Francesca and Caterina. Caterina is an Italian-American girl who is visiting Francesca and her family in Italy during the Italian holiday of Ferragosto in August.  Francesca meets Caterina on the beach and Francesca mentions that she saw Caterina talking to someone before her arrival. To describe this activity in the recent past, Francesca uses the imperfetto form of the Italian  past tense.

If you would like to listen to the entire dialogue, recorded with an Italian-American and a native Italian speaker, just click on the link from the website Learntravelitalian.com: On the Beach at Last.

Francesca:

Caterina:

Francesca:

Caterina:

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You may have noticed from the previous dialogue that the imperfetto past tense was used in certain situations, sometimes in combination with the passato prossimo past tense.  If you need a refresher on when to use the passato prossimo past tense, please see our previous blog: Past Tense Passato Prossimo: “Avere” vs. “Essere”? 

So, when to use the imperfetto past tense?  Italians mainly use this tense to express an action that was done habitually in the past but is no longer being done.  Can you think of some things that might take place every day, for instance? For instance, reading the paper, going to school, going to work, and eating breakfast, lunch and dinner?  If you want to talk about how you’ve done these things in the past, use the imperfetto! Sentences that use the imperfetto in this way are translated into the simple present tense and often include an adverb of frequency. Several of these adverbs are listed in the following table:

Italian Adverbs of Frequency

di solito often times
spesso very often
quasi sempre almost always
sempre always

 

Di solito, io finivo la lezione all’una il lunedì.
Often times, I used to finish the class at one o’clock on Mondays.

Quando ero piccolo, andavo a casa di mia nonna molto spesso.
When I was small, I went to my grandmother’s house very often.

 Quasi sempre mi sentivo male quando viaggiavo in barca.
I almost always felt sick when I traveled by boat.

 

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The other translation of the imprefetto past tense uses was/were -ing, and refers to an action performed in the past without mention of a particular starting or ending time.  This is especially important if two things have happened in the past, in which case the imperfetto is used for the first action in order to describe the setting at the time of both actions.  In this case, the completed action is given in the passato prossimo.  From our dialogue:

Caterina:

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It is also necessary to use the imperfetto past tense with the Italian verbs of thinking, believing, knowing and feeling  pensare, credere, sapere and sentirein order to refer to situations in the past.

Other phrases that refer to a personal state of being in the past, such as  being hungry or simply existing, use the imperfetto form of the verbs avere and essere.

The imperfetto conjugation of avere is regular:
io avevo,  tu avevi, Lei/lei/lui aveva,  noi avevamo, voi avevate, loro avevano.

The imperfetto conjugation of essere is irregular:
io ero, tu eri, Lei/lei/lui era, noi eravamo, voi eravate, loro erano.

To summarize… More uses for the imperfetto Italian past tense are listed below:

Pensavo che… I thought that…
Credevo che… I believed that…
Non sapevo che… I didn’t know that…
Mi sentivo male. I was feeling badly.
Io avevo fame. I used to be hungry.
Caterina era felice. Kathy was happy.

You will notice a common thread in the reasoning behind when to use the imperfetto: use the imperfetto when making generalizations about the past.

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For a final exercise using the imperfetto past tense, imagine you are a child and visited your Italian grandparents on their farm one summer. Tell a story in Italian about your daily routine.  Use adverbs of frequency and the imperfetto past tense to describe typical daily activities and how you felt living in the countryside. My attempt at this exercise is below.

Buon divertimento!  Have fun!

Un giorno in fattoria:                                    A day on the farm:

Avevo dieci anni l’estate scorso. I was 10 years old last summer.
Abitavo con mia nonna Maria e mio nonno Giuseppe durante l’estate a e mi piaceva molto la compagna! I was living with my grandmother Maria and my grandfather Joseph during the summer and I loved the country very much!
Di solito, io e nonna Maria preparavamo la prima colazione per la famiglia. Usually, io e nonna Maria made breakfast for the family.
Quasi ogni giorno, andavo di fuori per guardare gli animali della fattoria. Almost every day, I went outside to watch the animals on the farm.
Stavo molto bene in compagna. I felt really good in the country.
L’aria era fresca e il cielo era sempre blu.  The air was fresh and the sky was always blue.
Durante i pomeriggi, io e nonno Giuseppe camminavamo con il nostro gregge di pecore in montagne. During the afternoons,  Grandpa Joseph and I walked with our  herd of sheep in the mountains.
Nelle stasere, avevo molto fame! In the evenings, I was very hungry!
Ma non avevo fame per molto tempo perché a casa, nonna Maria cucinava una cena meravigliosa! But I was not hungry for very long, because back at home Grandmother Maria was cooking a wonderful dinner!

Of course, there are many, many more routine activities that can happen in a single day than what we have listed here. You may want to keep a short diary to practice using the imperfetto past tense forms in Italian. Every night before going to bed, write one or two sentences to describe in general how you felt during the day, or a habitual action that you performed. Soon it will be second nature to know when and how to use the Italian  imperfetto past tense!

Remember how to talk about the past using the Italian imperfetto and I guarantee
you will use this Italian past tense every day!

Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Verbs”

   Available on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com

Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day! – Past Tense Passato Prossimo – “Avere” or “Essere”?

Burano in Venice, Italy and Everyday Italian phrases
Kathryn for learntravelitalian.com
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Learn Travel Italian.com

Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2020? Let’s continue to work on this resolution!

As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.

If we learn how to incorporate “commonly used phrases”  in the past tense into our conversations, we will be able to talk about our daily lives just as we do in our native language! For instance, if we want to tell our family and friends what has happened during our day,  we will need to master the Italian passato prossimo past tense. The conjugation of the passato prossimo is fairly straightforward.  The tricky part is how to choose between the helping verbs avere or essere.

This post is the 31th in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group.  If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE

Many “commonly used phrases” in Italian

use the past tense

passato prossimo 

See below for how this works.

As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?

Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.

The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar  

                       found on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com.

The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.

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Italian Past Tense:

Passato Prossimo

Every Italian student starts by speaking only in the present tense — that is, about what is happening in the “here and now.”  But what if we want to refer back to an event that has happened in the recent past, such as this morning, yesterday, or last year?  Well, then, will have to learn how to form the passato prossimo past tense!

The passato prossimo translates into English as the present perfect tense and the simple past tense; in effect, when we learn this one type of past tense in Italian, we can substitute it for two types of past tenses in English! To avoid confusion, we will always use the Italian name, the passato prossimo, for this tense.

To get started speaking in the passato prossimo past tense, we must first learn how to form a past participle. Regular past participles in Italian can be recognized by their endings, and will have either ato, -uto, or -ito endings for infinitive verbs with the endings  -are, -ere, and -ire endings respectively. Many common Italian past participles are irregular, though, and will need to be memorized.

Once we have our past participle, we have to decide if we should use the helping verb avere (to have) or essere (to be). English is not much help in this regard, because English always uses the past tense verb “have” as the helping verb with a past participle. For instance, in English we say: ” I bought/I have bought” or “I went/I have gone.” For Italian, avere can be considered the “default” helping verb, although essere is essential as well.

Essere is needed for verbs that describe directional movement, such as coming and going from a particular place, as we touched upon briefly in our last blog, “Going and Returning.”  Essere is also used with verbs that describe the “passage through time” that occurs with living: birth, growing up, and death, or any other change in life.  Reflexive verbs and the verb that means “to like,” piacere, always take essere as the helping verb.

Let’s summarize:

When to use Essere + Past Participle for the Passato Prossimo Past Tense
1. Verbs of directional motion
2. Birth and growing up
3. Verbs that describe change
4. Reflexive verbs
5. Piacere (to like)
When to use Avere + Past Participle for the Passato Prossimo Past Tense
All verb types except those listed under the list for essere

Passato Prossimo with avere…

Below is an excerpt from a conversation between two women, Anna and Francesca, who meet for coffee at a cafe and are talking about what has happened earlier that morning. Francesca went shopping that morning with another friend, Caterina. To describe this activity in the recent past, Francesca uses the helping verb avere (to have) and the past participle comprato (bought) to form the passato prossimo form of the past tense.

You will notice from this dialogue that it takes two Italian words to express what we usually say with one word in English! We could express the same idea in English with two verbs, but usually default to the one-word, simple past tense.

In our dialogue, avere is conjugated to reflect the speaker; the ending for the past participle comprato remains the same, no matter who is the speaker. The two Italian past tense verbs have been underlined so they are easier to recognize. The Italian pronouns have been left out of the Italian sentences as usual, so these are put into parentheses in English. In most cases, there can be two translations in English. Since the less commonly used English translation usually more closely matches the Italian way of thinking, this secondary English translation is given in gray letters within parentheses.

If you would like to listen to the entire dialogue, recorded with two native Italian speakers, just click on the link from the website www.learntravelitalian: At the Coffee Shop.

Anna:

Francesca:

Anna:

Francesca:

Anna:

Francesca:


Passato Prossimo with essere…

Before we start to use the passato prossimo with the helping verb essere, we must first remember that in this situation the ending of the past participle must change to match the gender and number of the speaker. This follows our usual “matching subject, verb and predicate” rule for the verb essere.  

As a review of this rule with essere and the passato prossimo, below are some simple examples using the verb andare (to go). The masculine names and endings are given in brown, and the feminine names and endings in red.

  1. For masculine and feminine singular, to talk about who has gone somewhere:
Pietro è andato. Peter has gone.
Caterina è andata. Kathy has gone
  1. For a group of men or a group of men and women, the masculine plural i ending applies
Pietro e Michele sono andati. Peter and Michael have gone.
Pietro e Caterina sono andati. Peter and Kathy have gone.
  1. If the group contains only women, the feminine plural e ending is used.
Caterina e Francesca sono andate. Kathy and Frances have gone.

Also, remember that the past participle for essere is irregular, and is stato.

The past participle for avere is regular, and is avuto.

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Below is an example dialogue using both avere and essere as the helping verbs. Caterina and Elena are two travelers who are staying at the same hotel for the Italian holiday Ferragosto. They have just met each other on the beach.

The Italian passato prossimo past tense verbs have been underlined in our dialogue, so they are easier to recognize in the sentence examples below. The pronouns have been left out of the Italian sentences as usual, so these are put into parenthesis in English, and the less commonly used English translation is given in gray lettering with parentheses.

One of the lines in our dialogue uses the imperfetto past tense, which will be the topic of the next blog in this series. The imperfetto verb has not been underlined. Can you find it in the dialogue?

If you would like to listen to the entire dialogue, recorded with two native Italian speakers, just click on the link from the website www.learntravelitalian: On the Beach at Last.

Elena:

Caterina:

Elena:

Caterina:


Passato Prossimo with avere vs. essere…

There are some Italian verbs of motion that intuitively would seem to take essere as the helping verb in the passato prossimo past tense.  And yet… these verbs of motion instead take avere as their helping verb! 

Camminare and ballare are two verbs of movement that take the helping verb avere, rather than essere.

This may seem a bit curious, although one could say that dancing is movement without any set direction; spinning and turning are common, of course, and there is no set beginning or end to a dance, except in a performance.

Why does camminare take avere, and not essere? Maybe because it is sometimes used with the meaning of “to stroll,” which implies a leisurely walk without any set direction? Or maybe that is just the way it is, and there is no real explanation!

Take home lesson: to use essere as the helping verb, the main verb must be a verb that takes us from one place to another; in short, a verb of directional motion! Otherwise, we must use avere.

Below is a list of non-directional verbs of motion that take avere:

camminare to walk /to proceed /to function
ballare to dance
passeggiare to stroll /to walk
nuotare to swim
sciare to ski
pattinare (sul ghiaccio) to ice skate
pattinare (a rotelle) to roller skate
fare windsurf to windsurf

And, what about correre, you ask, the verb that means “to run” in Italian? Predictably, correre will take essere if one has run toward a destination.  Also, in order to say “to quickly go” in a figurative way in Italian, use essere + correre + appena. The past participle for correre is corso(a).

Lui è corso a casa sua. He ran to his house.
“Sono corsa appena mi hai chiamato.” “I came as soon as you called me.”

If one has simply “run around” without a destination, correre will take avere. Also, use the helping verb avere to describe that you have actually run during a sport activity. 

Lui ha corso. He ran.
Ho corso 20 km oggi. I ran 20 km today.

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For a final exercise in the passato prossimo past tense, let’s imagine some activities that may take place during a typical day, and describe them in the past tense.

There are four situations in which we will need to use the passato prossimo past tense:

Activities that occurred once, or a specific number of times in the past will use the passato prossimo past tense in Italian.
Activities that were performed within a specific time period, such as an hour, a morning, a day, or a year, will also use the passato prossimo. 
A state of being that occurred in a specific time frame will use the passato prossimo.
A state of having something during a specific period of time will use the passato prossimo.

You will notice a common thread in the reasoning behind when to use the passato prossimo: use the passato prossimo for a specific, time-limited activity.

Below are the example sentences from daily life.  As an exercise, match each sentence below with one of the explanations given above for why the passato prossimo should be used.

Also, notice when essere is chosen as the helping verb and how the ending of the past participle changes with essere to match the gender and number of the subject. All past tense verbs have been underlined. Buona fortuna!  Good luck!

Un giorno nella vita di Roberto:                        A day in the life of Robert:

Stamattina, mi sono svelgiato presto. This morning, I woke up early. (masculine)
Ho preparato la prima colazione per mia sorella minore. I made breakfast for my little sister.
Mia sorella è andata a scuola. My sister went to school.
Ho letto il giornale. I read the paper.
Alle nove di mattina, sono andato a lavorare. At 9:00 in the morning, I went to work.
Sono dovuto andare a lavorare per ogni giorno questa settimana. I had to go work every day this week.
Mi sono sentito molto stanco tutto il giorno oggi. I felt very tired  all day today.
Dopo le feste, ho avuto molto lavoro da fare. After the holidays, I had a lot of work to do.
Mi sono piaciuti molto gli spaghetti per cena stasera!  I really liked the spaghetti for dinner tonight!

Of course, there are many, many more activities that can happen in a single day than what we have listed here. You may want to keep a short diary to practice using the passato prossimo; every night before going to bed, write one or two sentences to describe important events that have happened during the day. Soon it will be second nature know when and how to use the two verbs in the passato prossimo past tense!

Remember how to talk about the past using the passato prossimo and I guarantee


you will use this Italian past tense every day!

Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Verbs”

   Available on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com

Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day! – Where we are going… in Italian

Burano in Venice, Italy and Everyday Italian phrases
Kathryn for learntravelitalian.com
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Learn Travel Italian.com

Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2020? Now is the time to get started working on this resolution!

As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.

If we learn how to incorporate “commonly used phrases”  about where we are going in Italian, we will be able to talk about our daily lives just as we do in our native language! We will need to master how to use the  Italian verb andare and the Italian verb venire for when we return home, but there are other important verbs of “going” and “coming  home” that are commonly used in Italy as well.

This post is the 30th in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group.  If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE

Many “commonly used phrases” in Italian

are used to talk about “going” and “coming home”

with the verbs
andare, venire, arrivare, tornare, rientrare

See below for how this works.

As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?

Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.

The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar  

                       found on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com.

The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.

************************************************

Where we are going… in Italian

Andare, Venire, Arrivare, Tornare, Rientrare

On any given day, the most commonly talked about activity is where one is going. We make plans, we go, we return, we talk about our activities along the way, and then we talk about where we went once again at the end of the day!

To talk about where one has to go on a certain day seems easy at first. We learn about the Italian verb “to go,” which is andare, in every beginning course in Italian.  The Italian verb andare is a bit tricky to use, though, so let’s go through a few pointers.

The first thing to know about the verb andare is that it has an irregular conjugation in the present tense for every speaker except noi and voi. So each form of this verb needs to be memorized.  I’ve reprinted the conjugation of andare below.  Try to say each verb conjugation aloud and listen to how it sounds. The syllables that should be emphasized are underlined in order to help with pronunciation.

********* AndareTo Go Present Tense*********

io vado I go
tu vai you (familiar) go
Lei

lei/lui

va you (polite) go

she/he goes

     
noi andiamo we go
voi andate you all go
loro vanno they go

After we learn how to conjugate the verb andare in the present tense, some attention should be paid to the meaning of the conjugated forms of this verb.  Io vado, for instance, can be translated into English as: “I go,” “I do go,” and for the near future, “I am going,” or “I am going to go.” Remember, though, that the subject pronoun “io” will be left out of the sentence in usual Italian conversation. In effect, the simple, one word sentence, “Vado,” when spoken will let someone know the speakers intent to leave, and encompass all the translations given above!

There is a way to say, “I am going,” in Italian if you want to emphasize that you are leaving right at the very moment in which you are speaking: “Sto andando.” But, unlike English speakers, who always seem to use the -ing form of the verb — going, coming, arriving, returning, etc… — in Italian the -ing form of any verb (technically the present progressive tense with the gerund) is less commonly used than the simple present tense. Again, a simple, “Vado,” will usually suffice to let someone know you are going somewhere right now.

Another way to say, “I am going!”  that will emphasize your intention to go somewhere is to put the Italian subject pronoun io after the verb vado.  “Vado io,” means something like: “I will go,” with the emphasis on the “I.”  This sentence structure implies that everyone else nearby can sit back and relax, as the person speaking will go to take care of whatever needs to be done. Maybe the doorbell has just rung and the family is gathered in the living room to watch a movie.  The person who decides to get up and answer the door may say, “Vado io,” to signal their intent to take care of things.  This verb/subject pronoun inversion works with other Italian verbs as well to signal intent, and in particular is used with “Prendo io,” for “I will take it,” when offering to carry a bag or suitcase for someone.  There is also the common expression, “Ci penso io,” which has the meaning, “I’ll take care of it,”* and implies, “You can count on me.”

Finally, if you are going away from a place where you are with other people, and want to signify your intent to leave, use the Italian verb andarsene, and say, “Me ne vado.”  This line can be translated simply as, “I’m leaving (this place),” or more strongly as, “I am getting out of here!” You will impress your friends with this phrase even without knowing all the details of this complex verb!

Let’s also take a look at the third person plural form of andare, which is andiamo.  Without going through the conjugations for the Italian command verb forms, it should be noted that “Andiamo!” when said with emphasis or written with an exclamation point means, “Let’s go!” 

Let’s summarize the important forms of the verb andare in a table:

andare  to go
Vado. I go, I do go, I am going. (near future)
Me ne vado.


Sto andando.

I am leaving (this place).
I am getting out of here!

I am going (right now).
Vado io. I am going (to take care of it).
Ci penso io.* I’ll take care of it.
Andiamo! Let’s go!

*Of course, “Io penso” means “I think.”

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Once we have learned to conjugate the Italian verb andare, and how to signal intent or encourage others to join us using this verb, are we ready to talk about where we are going to?  Not quite yet…

Because the Italian verb andare must be linked to the place with are going or to another verb with the word “a,” which in this case can be translated as “to.”  There is a fairly long list of verbs that follow this rule.  In this blog, we will also discuss one additional  Italian verb that follows this rule, the verb venire, which means “to come.”  Venire is another irregular verb in the present tense, except for the noi and voi forms, and the conjugation for venire is given in the table below. Try to say each verb conjugation aloud and listen to how it sounds. The stressed syllables have been underlined to help with pronunciation.

********* VenireTo Come Present Tense *********

io vengo I come
tu vieni you (familiar) come
Lei

lei/lui

viene you (polite)come

she/he comes

     
noi veniamo we come
voi venite you all come
loro vengono they come

Two important phrases to remember that use the “rule of the linking a” are “andare a trovare” (“to go to visit”) and “venire a trovare” (“to come to visit”). These phrases  are used when visiting a person. The verb visitare (to visit) can be used when you want to speak about a place you are visiting.

Try to listen for the “linking a when these phrases come up in conversation, and soon it will become natural for you, also, to say these phrases correctly.

Let’s see how our two verbs, andare and venire, can be used in a typical conversation at the breakfast table between a mother and her daughter or son.

Mothers commonly ask their family during breakfast:

Dove vai oggi? Where will you go today?

Some answers family members may give:

Vado a scuola alle otto. I am going to school at 8 AM.
Vado al lavoro. I am going to work.
Vado a lavorare. I am going to work.
Vado a trovare nonna a casa sua. I am going to visit Grandma at her house.
Vado a trovarla. I am going to visit her.

Or, a mother may want to remind her family that today Grandma or other relatives of the family are coming to visit them by saying:

Oggi, nonna vieni a trovarci. Today, nonna comes to visit us.
Oggi, i cugini vengono a trovarci. Today, the cousins come to visit us.

You will notice in the examples above that the direct object pronouns la and ci are given in red, as they are attached to the end of the infinitive verb trovare. If you need to review indirect object pronouns, see Chapter 16 of Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Grammar Book. There are many more instances of relatives and friends that we may want to go to visit or who may come to visit us at  home.  How many more can you think of?

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Of course, once we have left the house to “go somewhere” we will want to express that we will return.  Others may also greet us on our return.  Several other Italian verbs that can be used in this situation are: arrivare, tornare, and rientrare. 

Arrivare means “to arrive” and sounds  very formal to the English speaker’s ears.  We almost never say, “I have arrived.”  But arrivare and its first person conjugation arrivo, which means “I arrive” are commonly used in conversational Italian today when one wants to describe that he/she will soon “get to” somewhere. And, as also mentioned in our last blog, “Let’s email in Italian,”  arrivare  and arrivo are used to talk about whether an email message has “arrived” into one’s inbox.

To come back home is to “rientrare a casa.”  To wish someone, “Welcome back!” simply use the past participle of the verb tornare, which means “to return,” and a shortened from of bene, for “Ben tornato!”

Some examples of how arrivo, arrivare, tornare, and rientrare  can be used are given in the table below:

Sono in arrivo! I am coming!
Arrivo! I am coming!
Controlla la mail in arrivo! Check the email in your inbox.
Lo/La arriva! He/She/It is coming!
Loro arrivano. They are here. / They have arrived.
Allora, arrivano!
Ecco che arrivano!
Here they come now!
Here they come now!
Quando io rientro a casa, lo chiamo. When I get home, I will call him.
Ben tornato! Ben tornata!
Ben tornati! Ben tornate!
Welcome back! (masc. / fem. singular)
Welcome back! (masc./ fem. plural)

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At the end of the day, after we have left our home and then returned, we will likely want to update our family on our activities. Now we will need to use the verbs andare and venire in the past tense!

For a one time event that has happened during the day, the Italian passato prossimo form of the past tense will be the tense to choose. And for the verbs of direction andare and venire, we will need to use essere in the present tense as the helping verb with the  past participles andato(a,i,e) and venuto(a,i,e).

Remember that with the passato prossimo form of the past tense, the past participles have endings that change to match the gender and number of the speaker, as notated above in parentheses after the masculine “o” endings used for andato and venuto. If you need a refresher on the passato prossimo, this information is clearly explained in simple language in Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Verbs,” Chapters 11 and 12.

Let’s try  out how to use andare and venire in the past tense with two very common sentences we almost always say at the end of the day:  I/we went… and I/we came…   See the table below for these examples.  

Io sono andato(a) alla scuola. I went to school. (masc. / fem. singular)
Noi siamo andati(e) a lavorare. We went to work. (masc. / fem. plural)
Io sono venuto(a) a casa
alle sei di sera.
I came home at 6 PM.
(masc. / fem. singular)
Noi siamo venuti(e) a casa
alle sei di sera.
We came home at 6 PM.
(masc. / fem. plural)

There are many, many more, examples of where we all go each day,  and how and when we come home, of course!  How many more can you think of? To become more familiar with the past tense, try keeping a journal. Take a few moments each day to write a sentence or two about where you went and what you did. 

Remember how to talk about where you are going in Italian and I guarantee
you will use these phrases every day!

"Just the Verbs" from Conversational Italian for Travelers books
Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Verbs”

   Available on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com

“Conversational Italian and French for Travelers” Occhipinti author interview: The Independent Author Network

Learn Conversational Italian books 2017
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Conversational Italian for Travelers books

As an independently published author, I am pleased to announce that I have become a member of  “The Independent Author Network of writers” for 2020.

IAN is a partner member of the Alliance of Independent Authors and has been helping to promote independent authors since 2010 by providing support through their website and social media accounts.

This is why, as you may have noticed, there is now a link to my “Independent Author Network” IAN page you can find by scrolling down on the right sidebar of my blog. 

Visit my IAN author page for all the links to my websites and social media, nicely set out on one page for easy access!

Also,  my IAN author page features a cover photo for each of my books. Just click on the image and “look inside” each of my books to see the table of contents and read the first chapter of each.  If you like what you see, there are also links to purchase the books on Amazon.com and Barnes and Noble.com.

Conversational Italian for Travelers Just the Important Phrases
Conversational Italian for Travelers Just the Important Phrases (with Restaurant Vocabulary and Idiomatic Expressions) is YOUR traveling companion in Italy! All the Italian phrases you need to know to enjoy your trip to Italy are right here and fit right into your pocket or purse.

I should mention that readers of my IAN author page site may be surprised to see that last year I published a second pocket travel book, Conversational French for Travelers “Just the Important Phrases.”   The concept and style of this book is identical to my popular lightweight and compact Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Important Phrases.”  I owe a huge “merci beaucoup” to Nada Sneige Fuleihan for providing the French translation and collaborating with me to adapt my original Italian book into French. After a “trial run” by myself when I visited France in 2018, I am happy with the results and I believe this book will be just as useful to French travelers as my Italian book has been for Italian travelers.

Of course, the restaurant section in my Conversational French for Travelers “Just the Important Phrases” book had to be changed from the original Italia version, and many wonderful French dishes are now listed in place of the Italian. For this, I have to give my utmost thanks to the well-known chef and restaurateur in Chicago, Chef Dominique Tougne, the current owner of the French restaurant Bistro Chez Moi in Chicago, where I have had the pleasure to enjoy many authentic and delicious French meals.

I have also set up a new website for this French book, under my publishing company’s name, Stella Lucente.  Check out my Stella Lucente.com website for more information on all things French! I enjoy posting French language tips and information about  French culture and current events from a wide variety of sources on my Stella Lucente French Facebook page.

This year I have started “almost a phrase a day” tweets from Monday to Friday from my new book on @travelfrench1, with the same phrase tweeted simultaneously in Italian on my Twitter @travelitalian1.  I follow many other interesting bloggers, magazines, and news media outlets that post about France and Italy on Twitter and retweet their articles on my sites. Check out my Twitter feeds when you check in to Twitter for up-to-date news and information about your favorite places to visit!

If you are planning a trip to France this year, I hope you will check out my social media sites and consider my new French pocket travel book as a guide.

Front and back covers of Conversational French for Travelers

Conversational French for Travelers “Just the Important Phrases” pocket travel book is now available! YOUR traveling companion in France! All the Italian phrases you need to know to enjoy your trip to France are right here and fit right into your pocket or purse.

Finally, if anyone is curious about how I came to write my books and what I have planned for the future, you can visit my IAN Author review on the IAN Occhipinti review.   Grazie mille! Mille mercis!

Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day! – Let’s Talk About… Email in Italian

Burano in Venice, Italy and Everyday Italian phrases
Kathryn for learntravelitalian.com
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Learn Travel Italian.com

Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2020? Well, the new year is upon us and it is time to make some resolutions! Maybe you’ve decided that this is the year to take that dream trip to Italy you’ve been thinking about for some time.

Learning Italian will help to make contacts with family and friends in Italy, and learning about how to send an email in Italian may prove valuable with personal contacts as well as with making reservations at hotels and other sites of interest.

As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.

If we learn how to incorporate “commonly used phrases”  when we talk about email and we send an email, we will be able to communicate just as we do in our native language!

This post is the 29th in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group.  If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE

Many “commonly used phrases” in Italian

are used to talk about, send and receive
email.

See below for how this works.

As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?

Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.

The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar  

                       found on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com.

The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.

************************************************

Let’s Talk About… Email in Italian

Talking about the concept of email in Italian is tricky.  For one thing, the word “email” is an English abbreviation for “electronic mail,” and this abbreviation is not easily translated into Italian. For another thing, the way English speakers and Italians talk about email has evolved with each technological advancement in communication, and will probably continue to change in the future.  We may find that the terms we use in this blog today have been abandoned for different terms tomorrow!

But, let’s try anyway to talk about email the way Italians do — at least for now and hopefully into the 2020’s!

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When talking about how an Italian views the concept of email, the first and most basic question to answer is, of course,

“How does one translate the word “email” into Italian? “

The Collins English to Italian dictionary translation of email is simple and makes sense for both Italian and English: la posta elettronica, which translates as, “the electronic mail.”  

A single email message would be un messaggio di posta elettronica.

A person’s email address would be lindirizzo di posta elettronica.

Unfortunately, although these official Italian phrases make perfect logical sense, they are a bit too long for common, every day use. Since Italians, in general, easily accept useful foreign words into their language, it is not surprising that a quick look at the online dictionary Wordreference.com yields multiple permutations of English and Italian to translate the word “email.”

It should be noted here that the word “email” remains feminine when translated into Italian in all its various forms, since “la posta” or “the mail” is feminine in Italian.

Here are the different ways we can talk about email according to the online dictionary Wordreference.com.

la posta elettronica, la e-mail, l’email

il messaggio di posta elettronica, il messaggio email

l’indirizzo di posta elettronica,  l’indirizzo e-mail

It is apparent from the above phrases that Italians have, over time, shortened their correct but very long descriptive phrase la posta elettronica to the shorter phrase l’email.  This combination of Italian and English makes grammatical sense in Italian because the original word for “mail” in Italian is feminine and also because the Italian language generally eliminates the last vowel of the definite article la if the noun that comes after it begins with a vowel. L’email is commonly seen in written form on websites.

But, although l’email is correct grammatically, most Italians simply say “la mail.”

This difference in the official written form and the spoken form of the Italian word for “email” may originate from the difference in pronunciation between the English and the Italian letter “e.” In English, the letter  “e” can be pronounced with a long “ee” sound, as in “week” or short “eh” sound, as in “bed.”   But there is no long “ee” sound associated with the Italian letter “e,” and this may lead to confusion for an Italian when attempting to say the word “email” with the correct English pronunciation.  So, it is more simple in spoken Italian just to leave off the “e” in email, and say “mail.”

In the same way, note that a single email can be referred to in Italian as both the grammatically correct “un’email” and “una mail.”

Below is a summary of  the Italian phrases to describe email in Italian. The most common conversational Italian ways to say “email” are listed in the first column in bold letters.

la mail
l’email
la posta elettronica email in general
una mail / la mail
un’email
un messaggio di posta elettronica a single email
l’indirizzo mail
l’indirizzo e-mail
l’indirizzo di posta elettronica the email address

******************************

Now let’s talk about what to say if an Italian asks for your email address and you would like to reply in Italian.

The question: “Qual’è l’indirizzo mail?” is used for the English, “What is your email address?”

It will be important in this situation to know that the English word “at” used for the symbol @ is referred to with the visually descriptive Italian term “chiocciola,”  which literally means “little snail.”  And the “dot” in the English “dot” com is called a “period” in Italian, with the word “punto.”  

Italian email addresses often end in “it,” for Italy, and the abbreviation is usually pronounced as an Italian word. For email addresses that end in “com,” com is usually pronounced as a word, similar to English but with an Italian accent, of course!

The letters “it” and “com” may also be spelled out, using the Italian name for each letter. For the ending “it,”  the Italian letters are pronounced “ee tee.” For the ending “com” the Italian letters are pronounced “chee oh èmme.”

Below is a sample email address  that uses the name of this blog as a person’s first and last name, first written, then as it would be pronounced by an English speaker and an Italian speaker:

Conversationalitalian@aol.com
Conversational Italian “at” aol “dot” com
Conversational Italian “chiocciola” aol “punto” com

******************************

Finally, how do we talk about sending and receiving an email?

Two verbs are commonly used to describe the acts of sending and receiving an email.  The Italian verb mandare is probably the most common way to describe the act of sending an email, although the verbs inviare or spedire, older terms for “snail mail,” can also be used. 

The verb mandare just means “to send,” though, and Italian will follow this verb with the clarification “via mail.”  As noted above, other variations might include “via email” or “via la posta elettronica. “

When an Italian has received a message, he or she can use the verb ricevere, which means “to receive.” This event would, of course be in the past tense, as for example, “Ho ricevuto una mail.” “I have received an email.”

Remember that if you have received an email “about” something, the  English word “about” is often expressed in Italian with the preposition “su.”  The preposition su is then combined with the Italian definite article (il, la, lo, l’, i le, gli) before the noun that describes what the email will be about.  The different combined forms are: sul, sulla, sulo, sull‘, sui, sulle, sugli.  More detailed information about combining prepositions is found in the Conversational Italian for Travelers reference book Just the Grammar.

“Hai ricevuto una mail sulla prossima riunione?” translates as: “Have you received an email about the next meeting?”

Interestingly, if one person hears the notification sound that an email has “arrived” at another’s device, he or she may call out, “È arrivata una mail,” meaning, “An email has arrived.”  Remember to use the feminine form of the past participle for arrivare, which is “arrivata for the email that has just arrived! In the same way, an English speaker would notify someone with the line: “You have a message.”

When one needs to check their email, the Italian verb controllare, which can mean to check, to control, or to verify, comes into play.  One friend might say to another: “Controlla la tua mail!” for “Check your email!” Or, you may be advised: ” Controlla la mail in arrivo!” for “Check the email that is coming to you!”

A summary table is given below, with some example sentences, reprinted from the pocket phrase book Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Important Phrases.”

mandare via mail to send an email
ricevere una mail to receive an email
Ho ricevuto una mail. I have received an email.
Hai ricevuto una mail sulla prossima riunione? Have you received an email about the next meeting?
È arrivata una mail. An email has arrived.
You have an email.
Controlla la tua mail!
Controlla la mail in arrivo!
Check your email! (familiar command)
Check the mail that is coming to you!

Remember how to talk about email in Italian and I guarantee
you will use these phrases every day!

Conversational Italian for Travelers Just the Important Phrases
Conversational Italian for Travelers Just the Important Phrases (with Restaurant Vocabulary and Idiomatic Expressions) is YOUR traveling companion in Italy! All the Italian phrases you need to know to enjoy your trip to Italy are right here and fit right into your pocket or purse.

   Available on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com

Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day! – Benvenuto Natale!

Burano in Venice, Italy and Everyday Italian phrases
Kathryn for learntravelitalian.com
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Learn Travel Italian.com

Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2019? Well, it is the end of the year, and time for the fall and winter celebrations. Why not celebrate how much Italian you’ve learned this holiday season?

As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.

If we learn how to incorporate the “commonly used phrases”  that we say when attending a holiday gathering, starting, of course with the Italian interjection “Benvenuto(a,i,e)!” or “Welcome!” we will be on our way to conversing in Italian with family and friends for the holidays, just as we do in our native language! 

Of course, we also need to learn the variations of  benvenuto in order to greet each individual or group correctly, just as we have previously how to address those we are talking to with the correct masculine and feminine endings.

And, by remembering common Italian phrases for a holiday gathering, you will automatically have committed to memory the rules for Italian interjections!

This post is the 28th in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group.  If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE

Many “commonly used phrases” at Italian gatherings

start with the interjection “Benvenuto!”

See below for how this works and for some “Important Phrases”
to use at YOUR next Italian holiday party!

As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?

Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.

The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar  

                       found on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com.

The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.

************************************************

How to Use Benvenuto!

and Italian Holiday Party

Conversation

“Benvenuto!”* and its variations (Benvenuti! Benvenuta! and Benvenute!) are frequently used Italian interjections that all mean “Welcome!” Guests (gli ospiti) to an Italian household can expect to hear these words as a warm greeting before crossing the threshold into the home (casa) of the host or  hosts (la padrona di casa/il padrone di casa or gli ospiti).**  

Whether family, friend or acquaintance, every guest will be greeted warmly as a sign of the Italian dedication to hospitality for all. And, of course, the Italian Christmas season, which starts in early December and lasts until early January, brings with it many occasions for get-togethers with family and friends. For those interested in reading more about how the Christmas season is observed in Italy, click on the link to our previous blog Sperare (Part 2) – What I wish for the holidays…

Let’s get started learning some useful conversational expressions for Italian holiday gatherings from the very beginning — by first focusing on how to use the Italian interjection “Benvenuto!” to greet others.

There is only one rule to know regarding interjections: the ending of the interjection must agree with the gender and number of the noun (person, place or thing) that the interjection describes. Therefore, when the speaker addresses another person, the interjection must refer to the gender and number of the person or people who are being addressed. This, in turn, will determine the ending of the interjection!

Sound complicated?  Well, it is… a little bit. By remembering which form of benvenuto to use in four different situations, you will automatically have committed the rules for other Italian interjections to memory!

*Benvenuto can also be used as a noun and adjective as well, in these cases without the exclamation point, but with the same meaning of “welcome.” 

**Notice that the same Italian name is given to both guests and hosts: gli ospiti.
La padrona di casa refers to the woman of the house, or as we say in English, the hostess.
Il padrone di casa refers to the man of the house, or the host.

Interestingly, the English word hostess” means “stewardess” in Italian and has no other meaning in Italian. “L’hostess” means “the stewardess.”  

 

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How to Change Benvenuto

from Singular to Plural 

 

In general, of course:

  • A masculine Italian noun and its adjective will end in -o, and this ending will change to -i in the plural.
  • A feminine Italian noun and its adjective will ends in -a, and this ending will change to -e in the plural.
  • An Italian noun or adjective that ends in -e may be masculine or feminine, and this ending will change to -i in the plural.

If you are interested in learning more about masculine and feminine words in Italian that end in the letter -e, and how to distinguish one from the other, this You Tube Video may be of help: Italian Grammar by Stella Lucente.

 

For our interjection Benvenuto! the following rules apply:

  • The singular masculine form is benvenuto.
    The plural masculine form (for a group of males or a group of males and females) is benvenuti.
  • The singular feminine form is benvenuta.
    The plural feminine form (for a group of females) is benvenute.

 

Therefore, if greeting one male person, you would say, “Benvenuto!” If greeting a group of males or a mixed group of males and females, you would say “Benvenuti!” 

What should you say if one of your female relatives or or a female friend is at your doorway? “Benvenuta!” of course.  And if she brings her female friends or mother, daughter, or female cousin?  Say, Benvenute!”

 

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Changing  the Italian Interjections

Bravo! and Beato! 

 

As a visit to the symphony, ballet, or opera is often a part of the Christmas holiday season in Italy and America, let’s apply what we’ve just learned about the interjection “Benvenuto!” to the frequently used interjection “Bravo!” 

If we follow the rules in the last section for masculine and feminine endings, we should cheer “Bravo!” when one talented male Italian singer steps in front of the stage curtain for applause. And we do hear this word “Bravo!” frequently in America for a performance well done. But, in proper Italian, we should also be cheering “Brava!” for the female diva of the performance, and “Bravi!” for the entire fabulous ensemble.

In general, any person, male or female, who is “good” at something, or has done “a good job” is a “brava persona.”  In this case, the noun persona is feminine and so the adjective that modifies this noun must be feminine as well!

One more example of a commonly used interjection is “Lucky you!”  Has your brother received an unexpected holiday gift from a friend?  If so, and if you would like to express your happiness for him, you could say,“Beato te!”  Your sister? “Beata te!” An acquaintance? Either “Beato Lei!” for a male acquaintance or “Beata Lei!” for a female acquaintance, of course!

If your parents were finally able to retire and plan their dream vacation to Italy, you might comment, “Beati voi!” for “How lucky you all are!  And if your sisters are able to take a vacation together after an unexpected windfall — Beate voi!”

The table below summarizes these three common Italian interjections.  There are many more. How many more can you think of?

Benvenuto! Welcome! (to a male)
Benvenuti! Welcome!
(to a group of males
or a group of males+females)
Benvenuta! Welcome! (to a female)
Benvenute! Welcome! (to a group of females)
Bravo! Well done! (to a male)
Bravi! Well done! (to a group of males
or a group of males+females)
Brava! Well done! (to a female)
Brave! Well done!  (to a group of females)
Beato te! Lucky you!
(to male) (familiar singular you)
Beato Lei! Lucky you!
(to male) (polite singular you)
Beati voi! Lucky you!  (to a group of males
or a group of males+females)
(polite plural you)
Beata te! Lucky you!
(to female) (familiar singular you)
Beata Lei! Lucky you!
(to female) (polite singular you)
Beate voi! Lucky you! (to a group of  females)
(polite plural you)

 

Benvenuto Natale!

Now that we understand how Italian endings change for Italian interjections — that is, that the endings must agree with the gender and number of the person or people who are being addressed — we can continue with some useful phrases for conversation at a holiday party.

In the following table:

  • Some of the phrases will have nouns or adjectives with endings that change depending on whom is speaking or on whom is being addressed.
  • Verb endings will change, as usual, with the choice of  polite or familiar address, and abbreviations pol. and fam. will be given in each case.
  • Command verb forms are often used, as denoted.
  • Subject pronouns will also change, of course, and when attached to the infinitive form of the verb are given in red.
  • When Italian subject pronouns are not given, but must be used in the English translation, they are written with parenthesis in English.

The phrases below have been reproduced from Conversational Italian for Travelers pocket travel book,Just the Important Phrases.” You can use these phrases as a start, and then create your own!

 

Upon entering someone’s home as a guest,  you may hear these phrases and respond accordingly:

Benvenuto!(a)(i,e) Welcome! (to male/female, singular and plural)
Entri!
Entra!
Come in! (pol./fam. command verb)
Si accomodi.
Accomodati!
Make yourself comfortable. (pol./fam. command verb)
Da questa parte, prego. This way, please.
Si sieda.
Siediti!
Sit down. (pol./fam. command verb)
Piacere di conoscerla.
Piacere di conoscerti.
Pleased to meet you. (pol./fam.)
Piacere mio. The pleasure is mine.
Lieto(a) di conoscerla.
Lieto(a) di conoscerti.
Delighted (masc./fem. speaker) to meet you (pol./fam.)
Molto lieto(a)! Delighted! (masc./fem. speaker)
Sono molto contento(a) di vederla.
Sono molto contento(a) di vederti.
(I) am very happy (masc./fem.) to see you. (pol./fam.)
Sono felice di riverderla.
Sono felice di rivederti.
(I) am happy to see you (pol./fam.) again.

 

Some useful phrases of response during a conversation at a party:

Non mi dica! You (pol.) don’t say! 
(lit. You are not telling me!)
Sono contento(a) per lei.
Sono molto contento
(a) per te.
(I) am happy (masc./fem. speaker) for you .(pol./fam.)
Mi piace molto!
Mi piace tanto!
I love it!/ I like it a lot!
(lit. It is very pleasing to me!)
Mi piace un sacco. I love it! (idiomatic expression)
(lit. It is pleasing to me a sac full.)

 

Upon leaving someone’s home after a gathering, you may express the need to leave and your thanks for a lovely evening using these phrases:

Devo andare via ora. (I) must leave now.
È stato un piacere. (It) has been a pleasure.
È stato divertente. (It) has been enjoyable/fun/a blast/amusing/funny.
Ti sei divertito(a)? (Did) you (fam.) enjoy yourself? (masc./fem.)
Mi sono proprio divertito(a). (I) really enjoyed myself. (masc./fem. speaker).
(I had a great time.)
Grazie di tutto. Thank you for everything.
Grazie per la Sua ospitalità.
Grazie per la tua ospitalità.
Thank you for your (pol./fam.) hospitality.
Grazie per una bella serata. Thank you for a nice/beautiful evening.
La ringrazio.
Ti ringrazio.
(I) thank you. (pol./fam.)

 

There are, of course, many more phrases that are useful to keep in mind for Italian conversations at a get-together or holiday party. 

If you are interested in learning more phrases, and keeping them handy in a pocket or purse for easy reference, consider purchasing Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Important Phrases,” with its beautiful new cover.

Our book makes a great stocking stuffer for the Italophile you know!

Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Important Phrases,” is a stand-alone book with “all the phrases you need to know” to enjoy your trip to Italy and with tips on how to create your own!

 

Conversational Italian for Travelers Just the Important Phrases
Conversational Italian for Travelers Just the Important Phrases (with Restaurant Vocabulary and Idiomatic Expressions) is YOUR traveling companion in Italy! All the Italian phrases you need to know to enjoy your trip to Italy are right here and fit right into your pocket or purse.

Remember how to use the interjection Benvenuto! and I guarantee you will be able to easily add many more interjections to your daily Italian conversations!

   Available on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com

 

Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day! – Bello means “It’s nice!”

Burano in Venice, Italy and Everyday Italian phrases
Kathryn for learntravelitalian.com
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Learn Travel Italian.com

Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2019? Well, it is nearing the end of the year, and maybe by now you’ve had a chance to try out your Italian on your dream trip to Italy.  Maybe you’ve seen and experienced nice people and beautiful places on during your stay in the “bel paese.” Why not share about these experiences in Italian?

As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.

If we learn how to incorporate “commonly used phrases”  that use bello, the much-used Italian adjective that means “nice,” beautiful,” and so much more in Italian, we will be able to describe so many lovely things—just as we do in our native language! 

Of course, we also need to learn the variations of  bello in order to describe all the people and places that we will encounter that are beautiful in Italy!

And, by remembering common Italian phrases that describe what you will encounter in Italy, you will automatically have committed to memory the rules for the adjective bello! 

This post is the 27th in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group.  If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE

Many “commonly used phrases” in Italian

describe things that are “nice” or “beautiful”
with the adjective 
bello

and its variations – bel, bella, bei, belle, bell’

See below for how this works.

As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?

Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.

The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar  

                       found on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com.

The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.

************************************************

How to Use Bello

with Singular Nouns

 

Bello is an Italian adjective that one will use often when visiting the “bel paese”—so many people are and places are beautiful, nice, and lovely in Italy!  But, the form of this adjective will change according to the masculine or feminine form of the noun (person, place or thing) it modifies, the number of “things” that are beautiful, and also according to where this adjective is placed in the sentence.

When referring to a person, bello/bella are used to mean handsome and beautiful, as well as nice, or lovely.  Places or things can be beautiful, and also nice or lovely.  The context of the conversation will determine which meaning the word bello carries, although in many cases the meanings overlap. 

Note here: the adjective buono, which was the topic of our last blog in this series, is usually used when referring to food, which is always “good” in Italy!

Sound complicated?  Well, it is… a little bit. But by remembering some common phrases that use the adjective bello, you will automatically have committed the rules for this adjective to memory!

 

********************

We will start our discussion of bello with how to modify singular masculine nouns.  For masculine nouns, bello is placed either directly after the noun, or at the end of the sentence, after the verb è for is (from the verb essere). In the second case, the adjective bello will be separated from the noun it modifies, but both the noun and adjective will agree in gender and number. See the first two examples in our table below.

(You may notice that the rules for how and when to change the ending  for bello are identical to those for buono!)

A common Italian exclamation is, “Che bello!” which simply means, “How beautiful!” or “How wonderful!” This expression can also be used when an English speaker might say, “Cool!” to refer to something good. Another common expression one might hear in Italy is, “Che fai di bello?” for “What are you up to?” or “What’re you doing?” 

Il giorno è bello. The day is beautiful.
il giorno bello the beautiful day
Che bello! How beautiful!
How wonderful!
Che fai di bello? What are you up to?
What’re you doing?

 

But, when the adjective bello is placed before a masculine noun, the last letter -o is dropped from bello (along with the extra “l” when writing the word) to make bel, as in, “Che bel giorno!” for “What a beautiful day!”

You will remember that the Italian masculine nouns that begin with the letters s+consonant, z, ps, or gn are often treated differently in Italian from other masculine nouns that begin with a consonant.  For instance, the definite article lo must be used before these nouns, rather than the usual definite article il.

The two most important masculine nouns to remember in this category are studente (student) and zio (uncle).  When using these words in conversational Italian, bello usually follows these nouns, so we will not need to change the ending. 

Che bel giorno! What a beautiful day!
il bel uomo / il bel bambino the handsome man / the beautiful baby
lo studente bello / lo zio bello the handsome student
the handsome uncle

 

********************

For a feminine noun (person, place or thing), there is only one rule to remember—the adjective bella is used to describe something beautiful, nice or lovely, whether placed before or after the noun this adjective modifies.

La donna è bella. The woman is beautiful.
la donna bella the beautiful woman
la bella donna the beautiful woman
   
La città è bella. The city is beautiful.
la bella città the beautiful city
la città bella the beautiful city

 

But, of course, there is one exception to use of bella for feminine nouns: if bella is placed before a feminine noun that begins with the letter –a, simply drop the last letter from bella and add an apostrophe to make bell’ for smoother conversation.  Since our focus is on conversational Italian, just remember to bring the two words together when speaking, without repeating the -a ending, and don’t worry about the spelling!

A common Italian phrase is “Bella idea!” for  “Wonderful idea!” or “Great idea!”  Notice that there is no need to drop the -a from bella with this phrase!

la bell’amica the nice friend 
la amica bella the beautiful friend
Bella idea! Great idea!

 

************************************************

How to Use Bello

with Plural Nouns

The adjective bello follows the usual Italian rules for changing singular adjectives to plural adjectives when placed after the noun.

In general, of course:

A masculine Italian noun and its adjective will end in -o, and this ending will change to -i in the plural.

A feminine Italian noun and its adjective will ends in -a, and this ending will change to -e in the plural.

An Italian noun or adjective that ends in -e may be masculine or feminine, and this ending will change to -i in the plural.

If you are interested in learning more about masculine and feminine words in Italian that end in the letter -e, and how to distinguish one from the other, this You Tube Video may be of help: Italian Grammar by Stella Lucente, LLC.

 

********************

 Plural Bello/Bella after a noun

For the adjective bello, when placed after a noun, he plural will be belli.

For the adjective bella, when placed after a noun, he plural will be belle.

 

 Plural Bello/Bella after a noun

bello o goes to i belli
bella a goes to e belle

 

Now we are ready for some examples of noun/adjective combinations using bello to describe the beautiful people and places you will find in Italy!

il giorno bello the good day becomes
the good days
i giorni belli
la città bella the nice city becomes
the nice cities
le città belle*
la donna bella the beautiful
woman
becomes
the beautiful
women
le donne belle

*Notice that the  ending for città does not change in the plural, since it is invariable by definition, but the definite article and the adjective that modifies it do. If you really want to know if an Italian noun is masculine or feminine, just look to it’s definite article and the adjectives that modify it!

 

********************

 Plural Bello/Bella before a noun

When the adjective bello and bella are placed before a noun, changing the singular to the plural form is a little bit more difficult.  The endings actually follow the same pattern as the plural definite article (i, gli, and le), as described in the table below.

Don’t get too bogged down trying to memorize these endings right now, though, as most times it is perfectly fine to place bello after the noun and the regular endings can be used! 

 

Plural Bello/Bella before a noun

bel (masc. before consonant) goes to definite art.
 i
bei
bell’ (masc. before vowel) goes to definite art.
gli
begli
bella (fem. before consonant) goes to definite art. 
le
belle
bell’ (fem. before vowel) goes to definite art.
le
belle

 

 

il bel giorno the beautiful day becomes i bei giorni
il bell’albero the beautiful tree becomes i begli alberi
la bella settimana the nice week becomes le belle settimane
la bella donna the beautiful woman becomes le belle donne
la bell’europea the beautiful European becomes le belle euoropee

 

There are, of course, many more occasions to use the Italian adjective bello than those I have just listed.  How many more an you think of?

 

Just the Grammar from Conversational Italian for Travelers
Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Grammar”

Remember how to use the adjective bello and I guarantee you will want to say something  “nice” or “beautiful” about Italy every day!

   Available on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com

 

Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day! – Buono means “It’s good!”

Burano in Venice, Italy and Everyday Italian phrases
Kathryn for learntravelitalian.com
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Learn Travel Italian.com

Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2019? Well, now it is nearing the end of the year, and I’m sure you would like to share all your “good” experiences with friends. Why not do this in Italian?

As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.

If we learn how to incorporate “commonly used phrases”  that use buono, the Italian adjective that means “good” in Italian, we will be able to describe all the wonderful things we are sure to find when we visit Italy — just as we would in our native language!

Of course, we also need to learn the variations of  buono in order to say “hello,” “good day” or “good evening;”  phrases we will certainly use every day with family and friends, as well as with acquaintances in Italy.

This post is the 26th in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group.  If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE

Many commonly used Italian phrases
and
many Italian greetings

describe things that are “good” with the adjective buono

and its variations 

See below for how this works.

As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?

Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.

The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar  

                       found on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com.

The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.

************************************************

How to Use Buono

with Singular Nouns

 

Buono is an Italian adjective that will come up quite often when one starts to learn Italian, and will use often while traveling — so many things are good in Italy!  But, the form of this adjective will change according to the masculine or feminine form of the noun (person, place or thing) it modifies, the number of “things” that are good, and also according to where this adjective is placed in the sentence.

Sound complicated?  Well, it is… a little bit.  But luckily, there are many “commonly used phrases” spoken every day in Italy that use the word buono. 

And, by remembering these common Italian phrases, you will automatically have committed the rules for how to use the adjective buono to memory!

 

We will start by explaining how to use buono with singular masculine nouns.

For masculine nouns, buono is placed either directly after the noun, or at the end of a sentence that uses the Italian verb è for is. In the second case, the adjective buono will be separated from the noun it modifies, but both the noun and adjective will agree in gender and number.

So, in our example below, we see that there are two ways to express the idea that you are having a good day. In both cases, the adjective buono is placed after the singular masculine noun giorno. 

Il giorno è buono. The day is good.
il giorno buono the good day

 

When the adjective buono is placed before a masculine noun,  however, the last letter -o is dropped from buono to make buon, as in, “Buon giorno!”

Buon giorno! Good day!
buon uomo  good man
buon bambino
buon ragazzo
good baby (boy)
good boy

 

The masculine buon is also an important word to remember when one wants to express good wishes to another, such as with the phrase, “Happy Birthday!”  In Italian, these phrases can start with, ” Auguri di…” meaning, “Best wishes for…” But, more often than not, Italians use shorter phrases to wish others well, and these phrases often start with “Buon…”

 

Check out the table below for some common phrases of best wishes.
Buon divertimento! I hope you have a good time!

Auguri di buon compleanno! Best wishes for a happy birthday!
Buon compleanno! Happy birthday!
Buon anniversario! Happy anniversary!
Buon viaggio! Have a good trip!
Buon divertimento! Have fun!
Have a good time!
Buon Natale! Merry Christmas!
Buon anno! Happy New Year!
Felice anno nuovo! Happy New Year!
(less commonly used)

 

******************************

 

Now let’s talk about how to use buono with singular feminine nouns.

For a feminine noun, the adjective buona is used to describe something good, whether placed before or after the noun this adjective modifies. Again, one of our “meeting and greeting” phrases, “Buona sera,” will help us to remember this rule.*

Also, if you want to express the wish that someone has a good day for the entire day, you can use the adjective buona with the phrase “Buona giornata!”  The same applies for the entire evening with the phrase “Buona serata!”

 

Check out the table below for some common phrases that use buona.
Buona fortuna! Good luck!

La frutta è buona oggi.
la buona frutta
The fruit is good today.
the good fruit
Buona sera! Good evening!
Buona giornata! Have a good day!
(wish for the entire day to be good)
Buona serata! Have a good evening!
(wish for the entire evening to be good)
Buona idea! Good idea!
Buona fortuna! Good luck!

 

There is only one exception to the rule above: if buona is placed before a feminine noun that begins with the letter –a, simply drop the last letter from buona and add an apostrophe to make buon’ for smoother conversation.  Since our focus is on conversational Italian, just remember to bring the two words together when speaking, without repeating the -a ending, and don’t worry for now about the spelling!

So, if you want tell someone your friend—who is a girl—is a “good friend” to you,  you could say, “la buon’amica mia,”  for “my good friend.”  

 

*Some of these phrases can also be written as one word, as in: buongiorno, buonasera, and buonanotte.

****************************************

How to Use Buono

with Plural Nouns

The adjective buono follows the usual Italian rules for changing singular adjectives to plural adjectives.

In general, of course:

  • A masculine Italian noun and its adjective will end in -o, and this ending will change to -i in the plural.
  • A feminine Italian noun and its adjective will ends in -a, and this ending will change to -e in the plural.
  • An Italian noun or adjective that ends in -e may be masculine or feminine, and this ending will change to -i in the plural.

If you are interested in learning more about masculine and feminine words in Italian that end in the letter -e, and how to distinguish one from the other, this You Tube Video may be of help: Italian Grammar by Stella Lucente, LLC.

 

For our adjective buono, the following rules apply:

  • For the  masculine forms of the adjective buono, the plural is always buoni.
  • For the  feminine forms of the adjective buona, the plural is always buone.

 

 With these simple rules, we are ready to create some common noun/adjective combinations using buono and buona!

il giorno buono the good day becomes
the good days
i giorni buoni
il buon giorno the good day becomes
the good days
i buoni giorni
la buona notizia the good news
(one piece of news)
becomes
the good news
le buone notizie

 

There are, of course, many more occasions to use the Italian adjective buono than those I have just listed.  How many more an you think of?

Remember common expressions with the adjective buono
and I guarantee you will use then every day!

 

Just the Grammar from Conversational Italian for Travelers
Conversational Italian for Travelers “Just the Grammar”

   Available on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com

 

Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day! – Italian Reciprocal Reflexive Verbs

Burano in Venice, Italy and Everyday Italian phrases
Kathryn for learntravelitalian.com
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Learn Travel Italian.com

Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2019? Well, now more than half the year has passed, and I’m sure you have made a few Italian friends and would like to talk about your relationships with “each other.”

As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.

If we learn how to say “each other” in Italian, a “commonly used phrase” in English that is expressed with  Italian reciprocal reflexive verbs, we will be able to talk about common feelings and experiences — just as we do in our native language!

With a little Italian reciprocal reflexive verb  practice, soon we will be able to say “each other” in Italian in order to fully interact with our friends and describe what is happening around us.

This post is the 25th in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group.  If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE

Many “commonly used phrases”
that describe our interactions with “each other”
use

  Italian reciprocal reflexive verbs

See below for how this works.

As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?

Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.

The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar  

                       found on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com.

The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.

************************************************

How to Say “Each Other”

Italian Reciprocal Reflexive Verbs

 

Reciprocal reflexive verbs are used in the special situation when two or more people perform the same action together; this will make all people involved the subject of the action.

To express this type of situation in English we simply add the phrase “each other” after the verb that describes the action. Italians employ the -si ending, as with regular reflexive verbs that describe actions that revert back to the speaker.

Listed below are verbs that commonly use the reciprocal reflexive form:

abbracciarsi to hug each other
aiutarsi to help each other
amarsi to love each other
baciarsi to kiss each other
chiamarsi to call each other
conoscersi to get to know each other
fidanzarsi to become engaged
guardarsi to look at each other
incontrarsi to meet each other
(planned meeting)
odiarsi to hate each other
parlarsi to speak to each other
salutarsi to greet each other
scriversi to write each other
sposarsi to marry each other
telefonarsi to call each other
trovarsi to meet each other
vedersi to see each other

A quick glance at this list reveals two things: (1) many of these reflexive verbs have non-reflexive forms with similar meanings, such as amare (to love), parlare (to talk), scrivere (to write), and vedere (to see); (2) many of these reflexive verbs are also used as simple reflexive verbs, such as fidanzarsi (to get married), and sposarsi (to get married).

The verb chiamare and its reflexive form chiamarsi are also interesting. Chiamare alone means “to call,” as in to yell over to someone (or to make a telephone call, now that technology allows us to do this) but chiamarsi in its simple reflexive form has a different meaning: “to call oneself a name.” Of course, every Italian student quickly learns the first conjugation of the verb chiamarsi as part of their initiation into the Italian language with the phrase,Mi chiamo…” for the English phrase “My name is…”  So chiamarsi does  “double duty” as a simple and a reciprocal reflexive verb, with different meanings depending on the context.

In short, reflexive verbs add shades of meaning to the Italian language in a simple, yet brilliant way.

 

******************************

How do we actually use Italian reciprocal reflexive verbs in conversation?

Let’s give this a try with the two most commonly used persons in spoken Italian, the first person plural noi and the third person plural loro forms.

If the speaker is involved in the action with someone else—we are doing the action—conjugate the verb in the sentence using the first person plural noi form and put its reflexive pronoun ci before the  conjugated verb.

If the speaker is talking about a group of other people—they are doing the action—conjugate the verb in the sentence using the third person plural loro form and put its reflexive pronoun si before the conjugated verb.

As we have learned in our previous blogs, the subject pronouns are almost always omitted  when conversing in Italian, and this “rule” applies to sentences that use reciprocal reflexive verbs.  But the subject pronouns have been included in parentheses in our Italian examples in the table below, just to make it immediately clear who is the subject. With time, we should not need this hint, at least for the noi form, with its easily recognizable -iamo verb ending, which is the same for all verbs in the present tense!

Also, notice that in Italian the immediate future is expressed by the present tense, while in English, we tend to use the future tense for every future activity.  It is easy in English to speak in the future tense, since all we have to do is place the word “will” in front of the verb. Since the word “will” is not actually included in the Italian sentences given as examples, and we are not conjugating in the Italian future tense, the word “will” is given in parentheses in our English translations in the table below.

 

If we try to think a little bit in Italian, and translate the Italian ideas into the English we would ordinarily use, we will find that it is really not that difficult to understand Italian reciprocal reflexive verbs!

 

Io e Francesca ci vogliamo bene. Frances and I care for each other very much.
   
(Noi) Ci sposiamo oggi. We (will) marry each other today.
(Noi) Ci scriviamo ogni giorno. We write each other every day.
(Noi) Ci vediamo al teatro. We (will) see each other at the theater.
(Noi) Ci vogliamo bene. We love each other very much.

 

Caterina e zia Rosa si salutano. Kathy and Aunt Rose greet each other.
Michele e Francesca si vogliono bene. Michael and Frances care for each other very much.
   
(Loro) Si vogliono bene. They care for each other very much.
(Loro) Si incontrano. They meet each other.
(Loro) Si chiamano ogni giorno. They call (telephone) each other every day.

 

******************************

Let’s try this in the past tense. Remember, of course, that all reflexive verbs take essere in the passato prossimo past tense, and that the past participle ending must change in gender and number when using essere as a helping verb.

 

Io e Francesca ci siamo voluti bene. Frances and I cared for each other very much.
   
(Noi) Ci siamo sposati oggi. We married each other today.
(Noi) Ci siamo scritti ogni giorno. We wrote each other every day.
(Noi) Ci siamo visti al teatro. We saw each other at the theater.
(Noi) Ci siamo voluti bene. We loved each other very much.

 

Caterina e zia Rosa si sono salutate. Kathy and Aunt Rose greeted each other.
Michele e Francesca si sono voluti bene. Michael and Frances cared for each other very much.
(Loro) Si sono voluti bene. They cared for each other very much.
(Loro) Si sono incontrati. They met each other.
(Loro) Si sono chiamati ogni giorno. They  called each other (on the telephone) every day.

 

There are, of course, many more occasions for the use of reciprocal reflexive verbs than those I have just listed.  How many more an you think of?

 

Remember how to the Italian reciprocal reflexive verbs and I guarantee you will use then every day!

Conversational Italian for Travelers: “Just the Verbs”

   Available on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com

 

Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day! – How We Dress in Italian

Burano in Venice, Italy and Everyday Italian phrases
Kathryn for learntravelitalian.com
Kathryn Occhipinti, MD, for Learn Travel Italian.com

Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2019? Well, now more than half the year has passed, and I’m sure you are trying to talk about your every day activities with family and friends!  One of the most common topics of conversation in any language is about clothes and how we dress.

As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.

If we learn how to incorporate “commonly used phrases” when we speak Italian, we will be able to tell others how we dress and make “small talk” about how well others are dressed — part of “fare la bella figura” (looking fabulous) in Italian — just as we do in our native language!

In Italian we need to learn how to use three important verbs and we are all set to talk about what we are wearing—vestirsi, mettersi, and indossare. 

This post is the 24th in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group.  If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE

Many “commonly used phrases” that describe what we are doing

are about
  “Putting on clothing…” or  “What we are wearing…”

 If I want to describe what we are wearing in Italian,

we must learn how to use the Italian verbs
Vestirsi, Mettersi, and Indossare

See below for how this works.

As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?

Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.

The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar  

                       found on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com.

The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.

************************************************


What We Are Wearing in Italian


Vestirsi, Mettersi, Portare and Indossare

In Italian we need to learn how to use three important verbs and we are all set to talk about what we are wearing—vestirsi, mettersi, and indossare.  If we learn how to use these verbs properly, we will be able to tell others how we dress and make “small talk” about how well others are dressed — part of “fare la bella figura” ( looking good or making a good impression) in Italian — just as we do in our native language!

Vestirsi

Let’s start with the Italian verb “vestirsi,” which carries the general meaning of “to get dressed.” To use this verb, just conjugate it as you would any other reflexive verb to make a simple sentence.

We need to remember that for reflexive verbs, the subject pronoun of the sentence, (io, tu, Lei/lei/lui, noi, voi, loro), must be in the same person as the reflexive pronouns (mi, ti, si, ci, vi, si).

This sounds simple enough.  But, we also have to remember that the sentence structure in conversational Italian does not generally include the subject pronoun; the subject pronoun is understood from the verb ending, which will be unique for each speaker in the present tense.  So, for conversational Italian—even for reflexive verbs— the subject pronoun is left out of the sentence.  In our example table using reflexive verbs, the Italian subject pronoun will be given in parentheses for teaching purposes only.

In English, we do not convey this idea with a reflexive pronoun.  So the reflexive pronoun included in the Italian sentence will be given in parentheses in the English translation.

 

(Io) Mi vesto. I get (myself) dressed.
(Tu) Ti vesti. You get (yourself) dressed.
(Lei/Lui) Si veste. You (polite) get (yourself)…
She/He gets (herself, himself)… dressed.

 

(Noi) Ci vestiamo. We get (ourselves) dressed.
(Voi) Vi vestite. You all get (yourselves) dressed.
(Loro) Si vestono. They get (themselves) dressed.

 

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Mettersi 

When talking about putting on a particular article of clothing, such as a dress or suit (vestito)* for instance,  we must learn to use yet another Italian reflexive verb— mettersi, which means to put on oneself. 

Here is how it works:

Mettersi can be used to convey three different types of English sentences: I put on the dress,” “I put on my dress,” and “I put my dress on.” The reflexive pronoun mi (myself) is placed before the conjugated form of mettersi, as usual, and the article of clothing to be put on is then placed after the verb. The subject pronoun is omitted, as usual. So the final translation for “I put on the/my dress” is, “Mi metto il vestito.” 

If this all sounds complicated, just remember the simple phrase “mi metto” and replace il vestito with the article of clothing of your choice and you will be able to describe getting dressed with any article of clothing!

To describe action in the tu (you) form, just conjugate mettersi normally and then add the article of clothing, as in “ti metti.” For the lei/lui (she/he) form, use “si mette,” and so on.

(Io) Mi metto il vestito. I put on the dress./I put the dress on./I put on my dress.
(Tu) Ti metti l’anello. You put on the ring.
(Lei/lui) Si mette le scarpe. She/he puts on shoes.

*A note: Don’t confuse the verb vestire with the noun vestito, which means dress and also suit (pants and jacket or skirt and jacket).  These words are similar but have different meanings!  Also,  it should be mentioned that the plural noun, vestiti, means clothing.(Other words for suit that can be used for both sexes are abito and completo.)

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Portare

In order to say I am wearing…”  or I take the size…”  the verb portare, which is not reflexive, is usually used in the  simple present tense. You no doubt remember that portare is also commonly used to mean to bring”  or to carry.” 

Porto il mio vestito preferito. I am wearing my favorite dress.
Porto la (taglia) quarantotto. I take size 48.

 

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Past Tense Verb Choices

When speaking in the past tense, portare can also be used to say, I wore…” But perhaps because portare is used so commonly with its other meaning of to bring”  in the present tense, in order to describe what they have worn in the past, most Italians prefer to revert to mettersi and use its (irregular) past participle messo

Remember to use the helping verb essere for the passato prossimo past tense form with the reflexive verb mettersi.  And, of course the last vowel of the past participle must agree in gender with the person wearing the clothing (see the red vowels), since we are using essere as the helping verb. The table below shows how this all works:

(Io) Mi sono messo un completo.
(Io) Mi sono messa una gonna.
I wore a suit. (masculine)
I wore a skirt. (feminine)
Ho portato una gonna. I wore a skirt.

 

 

Another way to describe how someone was dressed is to use the imperfetto past tense of essere  with the descriptive past participle vestito(a,i,e).   This type of phrase can be used to make generalizations, as well as to refer to a specific article of clothing.  When being specific, the preposition con (with) is used in these phrases, as in the examples below.

Era vestito con un abito grigio. He was dressed in a gray suit.
Era vestita con una gonna blu. She was dressed in a blue skirt.
Eravamo vestiti tutti in rosso per la festa. We were dressed all in red for the party.

 

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Indossare

The verb indossare also means “to wear” and “to put on.”  This verb is used in exactly the same way as portare or mettersi.  To the Italian ear, however, the verb indossare is said to have a more elegant sound than portare or mettersi, and perhaps this is why indossare is more common in written Italian than in conversation.

Just like the other two verbs that have the same meaning, indossare must always be followed by the article of clothing that the person is wearing.

Caterina indossa un abito rosso. Kathryn is wearing a red dress.
La signora indossava un cappotto molto elegante. The lady was wearing a very elegant coat.

 

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Finally, when something fits perfectly on you or another, to really fit into Italian society, use the common expression calzare a pennello.”  Calzature refers to the art of making shoes, or “footwear,” so this Italian saying is the equivalent of  the English saying, It fits you like a glove” or It fits you to a T.”

 

Mi calza a pennello! It fits me perfectly!
Ti calza a pennello! It fits you perfectly!
Gli/Le calza a pennello! It fits (on) him/her perfectly!

 

Remember how to the Italian verbs vestirsi, mettersi, portare and indossare when talking about clothing and I guarantee you will use the every day!

Conversational Italian for Travelers: “Just the Verbs”

   Available on amazon.com and Learn Travel Italian.com