Do you want to speak Italian more easily and confidently by the end of 2021?
Many Italian verbs have a similar use to those in English, which simplifies translation from one language to the other. However, many times the meaning of an Italian verb will vary from the usual English connotation. And in many situations, the same verb can have several different meanings in both languages, depending on the context. Tenere (along with its reflexive form tenersi, and the pronominal verb tenerci) is one of those verbs that is used in many ways in Italian and is important to “keep in mind” if one wants to use it correctly.
As I’ve said before, I believe that “commonly used phrases” are the key for how we can all build fluency in any language in a short time.
If we learn how to incorporate “commonly used phrases” when use the Italian verb tenere, we will be able to communicate just as we do in our native language!
This post is the 51st in a series of Italian phrases we have been trying out in our Conversational Italian! Facebook group. If you’d like to read the earlier posts in the series, “Italian Phrases We Use EVERY Day!” just click HERE
Many “commonly used phrases” in conversation
use the Italian verb
See below for how this works.
As we all master these phrases, so will you. Try my method and let me know how it works. What sentences will you create with these phrases?
Please reply. I’d love to hear from you! Or join our Conversational Italian! group discussion on Facebook.
The basics of the Italian language are introduced in the Conversational Italian for Travelers textbook and reference books Just the Verbs and Just the Grammar
The rights to purchase the Conversational Italian for Travelers books in PDF format on two electronic devices can also be obtained at Learn Travel Italian.com.
Let’s Talk About…
The Many Uses of the Italian Verb
The Italian verb tenere has a wide range of meanings and its use lends a bit of sophistication to one’s Italian. It is important to “keep in mind” the nuances of the verb tenere to create sentences as we would in our native language.
The Italian verb tenere is most often translated into English as “to hold” or “to keep.” It can be used in a simple way, to describe holding an object or holding another’s hand. As in English, the verb tenere can also mean “to hold,” with reference to capacity, as in how many objects or people can occupy or be contained in a certain space or place. The word “hold” in English can also take on the connotation of “to support” something (as a column holds up a roof) or someone (as a fan supports his team). So it is with tenere, which can mean “to support.”
Tenere is an important verb to use when dining at an Italian restaurant to tell someone to “keep the change.”
When the verb tenere is combined with the phrase “conto di,” it takes on different shades of meaning. [Tenere + conto di] is used to describe the concepts of keeping something in mind, keeping track of something, or being aware of something. The phrase can also have the connotation of considering or taking to heart important issues.
Combining the verb tenere with “conto che,” as in [tenere + conto che], adds yet another nuance to the original ideas of “to keep” or “to hold,” and is used to convey the idea of to consider. [Tenere in conto + noun] means to consider something.
Tenersi, the reflexive form of tenere, is also often used in the important everyday phrase “keep/stay in contact” and is a nice way to end a conversation or an email with a friend. Tenersi is often used when giving another instructions to hang/hold onto something or abide by/follow certain rules and regulations. If your emotions get the best of you and you can’t keep from laughing or crying, then use [tenersi + da] to get this point across!
There are many common Italian expressions that combine tenere with the preposition “a.” A few of these expressions will be listed in example sentences below.
When the verb tenere is combined with the preposition “a” and an adverb or adjective, as in [tenere +a +molto] the meaning changes once again. [Tenere + a] means to care about someone or something. You might think of using tenere in this way as being similar to the English phrase “to hold someone dear.” Consider also that the adjective tenero(a) is used to describe the following characteristics: tender, sensitive, or warm. For full emphasis, the pronominal verb tenerci followed by “a” [tenerci + a] can be used to stress the importance of something. A description of pronominal verbs and their uses is beyond the scope of this blog, but rest assured, if you add the pronoun “ci” before “tengo a,” you are telling someone that something is important to you!
Finally, in some important Italian phrases, tenere can be used interchangeably with the verb avere, and take on the meaning of “to have.”* Using tenere in this manner is a subtle way to emphasize that you are “keeping” or “holding close” the thing that you have.
Let’s talk about how to conjugate tenere in the present, past, and future tenses before using it in some example sentences.
Present tense: tenere is an irregular -ere verb in the present tense, since it has an irregular stem in all forms but the noi and voi forms. The present tense conjugation is below. The irregular stem is in brown:
Past tense: When used in the passato prossimo to describe a single event, avere is the helping verb and the past participle is tenuto.
Tenere is regular in the imperfetto past tense (tenevo, tenevi, teneva, tenevamo, tenevate, tenevano).
Future tense: Tenere is irregular in the future tense due to it’s irregular stem.
1. Use tenere to describe the simple act of holding something or holding someone’s hand.
- Tenere can also be used to refer to the capacity of something, or “how much” a certain thing or a place can hold.
- Tenere can mean “to support” something or somebody.
|Tieni stretto questo biglietto; tienilo in mano; non lasciarlo!|
|Hold this ticket tightly; hold it in your hand; don’t lose it!|
|Mi piace tenere la mano del mio fidanzato quando camminiamo in piazza.|
|I like to hold my fiance’s hand when we take a walk in the piazza.|
|L’Allianz Stadium a Torino tiene 41,507 spettatori.*|
|The Allianz Stadium in Turin holds 41,507 spectators.|
|Ho raccolto tutti i fiori che posso tenere in una mano!|
|I have collected all the flowers that I can hold in one hand!|
|Vengo da Turino. Tengo per la Juve / Tifo per la Juve. **|
|I am from Turin. I support/root for the Juventus soccer team.|
|Le mure sono molto vecchie. Grazie di Dio le colanne tiene il tetto!|
|The walls are very old. Thank goodness the columns support the roof!|
* Regarding the use of tenere with the meaning of “to have/to own/to possess”: the verb tenere is used mostly in the south of Italy, while in the north they would simply use the verb avere (example: Lo stadio ha 41,507 spettatori.).
**Regarding the use of tenere to describe support for a sports team: “tengo per” is used in the south of Italy. “Tifo per” is used in the north.
2. Use tenere to mean “to keep” — the simple act of keeping something in a place.
- In a restaurant, a common phrase spoken by the customer to the waiter in both English and Italian is, “Keep the change!” In Italian, the polite command (subjunctive) form of tenere is used for this phrase, often with the addition of the Italian word “pure“ which serves to encourage the server to keep the tip. Use of the subjunctive is beyond the scope of this blog. Just memorize this simple phrase, which should come up often!
|Tengo gli attrezzi per cucinare di là.|
|I keep the cooking utensils over there.|
|Tenga pure il resto!|
|Keep the change, please!|
3. Use [tenere + conto di] with the figurative meanings listed below.
- to keep something in mind
- [tenere a mente] also means “to keep something in mind”
- to keep track of something
- to consider (See also #4, listed below)
- [tenere in conto + noun] and [tenere conto che] also mean “to consider”
- “non tenere in sufficiente considerazione a…” means
“not to give sufficient consideration to…“
- to take to heart
|Ho dovuto tenere conto di tutte le regole che tu mi hai detto al lavoro.|
|I have to keep in mind all the rules you told me at work.|
|Tieni conto dei clienti e dagli quello che vogliono!|
|Keep track of the clients and give them what they want!|
Terrò conto del fatto che il gruppo ha lavorato molto quando gli darò gli incentivi.
I will consider that the group has worked hard when I give them the bonuses.
|Mi raccomando, tieni conto di quello che io ho detto!|
|I insist/demand/ (that you) take to heart what I have said!|
|Ho tenuto conto di tutto che tu hai detto. E sono d’accordo!|
|I’ve considered all that you have said. And I agree!|
4. Use [tenere + conto che] or [tenere in conto + noun]
for “to consider.”
- “non tenere in sufficiente considerazione a…” means
“not to give sufficient consideration to…“
- [tenere conto di] can also mean “to consider” (See #3).
|Devo tenere conto che ci sono molte opinioni in questo gruppo prima di prendere una decisione.|
|I have to consider that there are many opinions in this group before making a decision.|
|Devo tenere in conto anche le altre regole.|
|I must also consider the other rules.|
5. Use the reflexive verb tenersi to ask someone to “keep/stay” in touch or give a command to “follow/abide by” a rule.
- Other translations of tenersi include “hang onto” and “hold onto”.
- [Tenersi + da] can also be used to express the phrase “to keep from…” doing something, such as laughing or crying. In this case, tenere is often combined with the verb riuscire, which means “to manage to,” and further emphasizes the effort one has put into trying to “keep from” doing something. To learn more about how to use the verb riuscire, visit another blog in this series: “The Many Uses of the Italian Verb “Ruscire.”
|Teniamoci in contatto!|
|Let’s keep in touch (with each other)!|
|Ragazzi, tenetevi al regolamento o non vincerete la partita!|
|Boys, follow the rules or you all will not win the game!|
|Tieniti il tuo cappello; è molto ventoso oggi!|
|Hang onto your hat; it’s very windy today!|
|Tieniti alla ringhiera bambini!|
|Hold onto the handrail, children!|
|Questo film è molto triste. Non riesco a tenermi dal piangere.|
|This film is very sad. I can’t manage to keep from crying.|
|Quello attore era molto divertente. Non riuscivo a tenermi dal ridere.|
|That actor was very funny. I couldn’t keep from laughing.|
6. Common Italian phrases with [tenere + a]
|Tenere a bada = Tieni a bada i tuoi animali domestici.|
|To keep under control = Keep your pets under control.|
|Tenere a cavezza = Marco tiene a cavezza i suoi figli.|
|To keep someone under one’s thumb =Mark keeps his children under his thumb.|
|Tenere a freno = La famiglia di Anna tiene a freno tutte le ragazze.|
|To keep a tight rein on = Ann’s family keeps a tight rein on all the girls.
To hold back
|Tenere a battesimo = Anna teneva a battesimo la sua nipote.
|To sponsor a child at baptism = Ann sponsored her niece at the baptism.
To be a godfather or godmother Ann became her niece’s godmother.
|Tenere a distanza = Maria tiene a distanza da Marco perché non le piace.|
|To keep at a distance = Maria stays away from Mark because she doesn’t like him.|
|Tenere a balia = Marco teneva a balia questo lavoro
perché lui è pagato a ore.
|To drag out = Mark dragged out this job
To take longer than necessary because he was paid by the hour.
|Tenere a pane e acqua =Marco tiene a pane e acqua Maria oggi.|
|To punish somebody =Marco punished Maria today.
(lit. to keep somebody on bread and water)
|Tenere a pigione = Caterina tiene a pigione la sua casa in campagna ai suoi cugini.|
|To have as tenants =Kathy is renting her house in the country to her cousins.
|Tenere aggiornata = Marco tiene aggiornato Maria sulle notizie ogni giorno.|
|To keep somebody updated =Marco keeps Maria updated on the news every day.
To keep somebody posted/in the loop about something
|Tenere all’oscuro di = Marco teneva all’oscuro Anna dalla notizia.|
|To keep somebody in the dark about something =Mark kept Ann in the dark about the news.|
|Tenere alto il morale = Marco ha tenuto alto il morale della sua squadra anche
se stavano perdendo
|To lift up someone’s spirits = Mark lifted up the spirits of his team even when they were losing.|
|Tenere alta la bandiera = Teniamo alta la bandiera della nostra città.|
|To honor your homeland or city = We honor/bring honor to our city.
(lit. to hang the flag high)
7. Use [tenere + a + adverb/adjective] or [tenerci + a] to describe caring about something very much
- Remember another way to talk about platonic love and caring among family members and friends is to use the verb volerci, with the phrase, “Ti voglio bene.” For a review of the many ways to express one’s feelings of love, visit our blog in this series: “How to Talk About Relationships and Love in Italian.”
- [Tenerci + a] can also be used in an introductory phrase when the speaker wants to emphasize the importance of what they will talk about or what they have done. Therefore, this phrase is often followed by the verb dire or fare.
|La mamma tiene molto ai suoi bambini.|
|The mother cares very much for her children.|
|La mamma ci tiene a loro.|
|The mother cares very much for them.|
|Ci tieni a me?|
|Do you care about me?|
|Si! Ci tengo a te!|
|Yes! I care about you!|
|Ci tengo a dire che studiare la cultura è l’unico modo di capire un altra lingua.|
|It’s important to me to say that studying the culture is the only way to understand another language.|
|Ci tengo a fare la cosa giusta.|
|It’s important to me to do the right thing.|
8. Use the tenere in place of avere for certain expressions.
|Avere famiglia / tenere famiglia = Ho/Tengo una famiglia con tre figli a Roma.|
|To have a family =I have a family with three children in Rome.|
|Avere sotto il braccio / tenere sotto il bracchio =Ho/Tengo il pane sotto il braccio e cammino a casa.|
|To carry underarm =I carry the bread underarm and walk home.|
|Avere in serbo / tenere in serbo =Ho/Tengo una speciale bottiglia di vino per te.|
|To set something aside =I have set aside a special bottle of wine for you.|
|Avere in serbo / Tenere in serbo =Ho/Tengo una sorpresa per te!|
|To have something in store for someone (figurative) =I have a surpise for you!|
Remember how to use the Italian verbs tenere, tenersi, and tenerci in conversation
and I guarantee you will use these verbs every day!